Prologue II: clashes between Estonians and Russians in the XII century

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Princes of Novgorod organized raids to Estonia in 1111-1116 and 1130-1134. These took place in Eastern Estonia and did not result in long lasting conquests. According the Russian chronicles, Estonians organized their own pillages in return.
Estonians initiated a larger campaign against Pihkva in 1177, which the Russians returned in kind. In 1190, Russians fought Estonian ships on Lake Peipsi. During the winter of 1191-1192, forces of Novgorod and Pihkva seized the forts in Tartu and Otepää, but even these victories did not lead to longer results.

Image: Kreml in Novgorod

Source: Ain Mäesalu, Tõnis Lukas, Mati Laur, Tõnu Tannberg. Eesti ajalugu I. Avita: Tallinn 1995

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