End of the era of Old-Livonia

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The first state in Livonia to hand itself to a foreign power, was the Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek, duke Magnus becoming its ruler. Later, he started to work together with the Russians. In Northern Estonia, the town of Tallinn and the The Estonian Noble Corporation decided to place themselves under the Swedish rule. Whereas Southern Estonia, along with Latvian territories, went to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Ultimately, the Order and archbishop gave themselves to king Sigismund II in 1562, and that could be considered the end of the existence of Old-Livonia. This was followed by fierce battles between landlords, in which until 1577, Russia was the most successful. By that time, Russia had conquered all of Estonian mainland, except for Tallinn, and its nearby areas.

Source: A.Mäesalu, T. Lukas, M. Laur, T. Tannberg "Eesti ajalugu I" 1997 "Avita"

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