The early settlements

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8900 BC

Pulli settlement

The first known settlements in Estonia date back 11,000 years: carbon-dated samples from Pulli settlement pointed it to originate from about 8900 BC.

Lammasmäe settlement

Lammasmäe settlement in Kunda, and Reiu settlement are thought to be roughly the same age. They are considered to belong to the oldest of the Estonian archaeological cultures - Kunda culture. This marks the beginning of the Stone Age in Estonia. Kunda culture encompassed Estonia until the Middle Stone Age or the Mesolithic period, that lasted until 5000 BC. Due to the ice age, the Early Stone Age did not exist in Estonia.

No permanent settlements were founded during the Mesolithic period; bands of hunters and gatherers roamed the land. Rock-axes and, later, bows, spears and fish gigs were used as tools. Several objects were also made of bone.

Fish angles made of bone.

Source: A.Mäesalu, T. Lukas, M. Laur, T. Tannberg "Eesti ajalugu I" 1997 "Avita"

Image source: "Eesti Ajaloo Atlas"

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