The Great Northern War continues

to map

December 1710

After the capitulation of the 16,000 man Swedish force on June 27, 1709, in the Battle of Poltava, Charles XII fled to the Turkish domain in Ukraine, and the town of Bender, on the banks of Dnestr River, became the king's new headquarters.

Peter I restored the treaty with Augustus II, who had recaptured the throne of Poland. In a secret article of that treaty, the governorate of Estonia, then still unconquered, was agreed to now belong to Russia. Livonia remained potentially as part of Augustus' domain, but in reality, it was clear that that would not happen.

In 1709, Denmark restarted the war against Sweden. If initially the Swedes were successful, then in May 1713, Swedish force that invaded Jutland from Germany's side, was forced to surrender. In 1711, Charles XII planned to engage Turkey in the war as an ally of Sweden. Turkey did surround the Russian Army along with Peter I on the river of Pruti, but agreed to cease further military activity,if the fortress of Aasov was returned to them.

In 1712 The Russian forces, led by prince Apraksin, invaded Finland. In February 1714, in the battle on Kyro River, the Swedish force was defeated and by the end of that year, all of Finland had been conquered by Russia.

In May 1718, the Swedish-Russian negotiations began in Åland, but without a result. During the peace conference on November 30, 1718, king Charles II fell in the siege of the Norwegian fort, Fredrikshald, that belonged to Denmark.
Thus, by March 1719, any hope for peace had run off the tracks.

Source: Eesti ajalugu. IV, Põhjasõjast pärisorjuse kaotamiseni. Tartu: Ilmamaa. 2003 Eesti ajaloo atlas. Tallinn: Avita, 2006.                  

Image source. A. Mäesalu, T. Lukas, M. Laur, T. Tannberg Eesti ajalugu I Avita 1997. lk 127


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