Kõnnu settlement

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4000 BC

In spring 1977 Saaremaa TREV started the excavation of gravel near Sauaru (former Kõnnu) village of Pihtla rural municipality (2 km towards Pihtla from 15th kilometre of Kuressaare-Kuivastu road). After peeling the ground dark stains were noticed on light gravel.

The works were stopped. The archaeologist called from Tallinn specified the existence of the Stone Age settlement. The archaeological excavations were continued in the same year and next years (V. Lõugas, L. Jaanits). Unfortunately the irrecoverable damage was caused to the culture layer of the oldest Stone Age settlement in the quarry located next to it.

The Stone Age settlement of Kõnnu is located on the gravel highland with about 1 km diameter. During the foundation of the settlement this has established the small islet which has today remained at 16 m high of the sea surface. In some hearth place the animal bones have been found which may refer to the former "kitchen" secrets - meat stewing under and between hot stones.

The fish scales, clay pottery pieces and numerous various stone, flint and quartz objects were found near the pits. The set of stone objects collected from Kõnnu exceeds all other similar findings from the settlements of Stone Age explored in Saaremaa as to number and variety. Not much pottery was found in Kõnnu, its simplicity allows to date the settlement to the early period of Neolithicum.

In the course of excavation works three burials were discovered, one of them double burial. The amber pieces, limestone ring, quartz objects, bone harpoon end, big stone hollow cleat were found near the skeletons. The teeth pendants (total of 108) were numerous in both burials, initially probably sewn to the clothes.

The third skeleton, twenty metres away from the previous ones, was buried with crooked knees to the right side, hands probably placed under the head. The stone cleat with quite primitive processing was found near the knees. Single burial is considered as belonging to the foundation era of settlement in early Neolithicum, double burial to the later, period of comb ceramics culture.

Olavi Pesti, Külli Rikas. Kingissepa rajooni ajaloo- ja kultuurimälestised. Tln., 1983

"Eesti ajaloo atlas"


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