Kivisaare stone age settlement

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9000 BC

Kivisaare drumlin located on the area of Meleski village (small drumlin of northeastern-southeastern direction surrounded by marshy area, absolute height up to 38 m above sea surface is located about 6 km from Võrtsjärve and 1.5 km from River Põltsamaa.

On photo: Archaeological excavations on Kivisaare stone age settlement place in 1921. Different findings have been collected from there and foremost this is the cemetery before metal age or its beginning with most numerous graves of the Estonian area.

As Bolz (1941) emphasized in the article summarizing its Kivisaare research results the cemetery, the first known Neolithic cemetery in the Baltic countries, has been the key issue at all previous fieldworks.

The first graves were found from there already in 1882 at the gravel excavation from the bump located in the middle of the drumlin. 2712 findings were collected at the excavations and inspections, most of which belongs to the Stone Age. The stone findings -total of 2369, 2299 (97%) of which of flint, 63 (2.7%) of quartz (incl some of quartzite) and 7 (0.3%) of other rocks.

Flint has an unstable quality and is probably of local origin. In case of only one piece the raw material originating from Central Russia can be suspected. Võrtsjärve hollow is one of the richest regions in Estonia regarding the flint. Natural flint occurring with abundant gravel and pebbles, among others, refers to it in the whole excavated ground of Kivisaare.

Most of the findings are splinters: 1960 flint splinters (85.3% of the flint findings), 59 quartz splinters (93.7% of quartz findings) and 2 stone splinters. There are relatively many chips and chip snatches, more than half of which were received from the southern part of the pit. If only one chip of both quartz and quartzite exists, then total of 230 chips are of flint (figure 5) and chip snatches (171 and 59 accordingly, total of 10% of flint findings). 140 of the latter have one ridge, 45 two ridges, 40 without ridges, 4 with three ridges and 1 four-ridged.

"Eesti ajaloo atlas" lk 13-15


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